Teen Dating Violence
Like domestic violence, teen dating violence is a pattern of controlling, and abusive behaviors of one person over another within a romantic relationship. It can include verbal, emotional, physical, sexual, and financial abuse. It can occur in both heterosexual and homosexual relationships. It knows no boundaries and crosses race, socio-economic status, culture, and religion. can happen to anyone.
Annually, 1 out of 11 adolescents reports being a victim of physical dating abuse (CDC 2006). Many of these cases of teen dating violence could have been prevented by helping adolescents to develop skills for healthy relationships with others (Foshee et al. 2005).
Like adults, teenagers can choose better relationships when they learn to identify the early warning signs of an abusive relationship, understand that they have choices, and believe they are valuable people who deserve to be treated with dignity and respect.
Photo credit: Microsoft Clip Art
The month of March has long been recognized as Women’s History Month. Domestic violence continues to pose a clear and present danger for women and girls. To highlight that fact here are some alarming facts shared on the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence’s website:
“Almost one-third of female homicide victims that are reported in police records are killed by an intimate partner. In 70-80% of intimate partner homicides, no matter which partner was killed, the man physically abused the woman before the murder. Less than one-fifth of victims reporting an injury from intimate partner violence sought medical treatment following the injury. Intimate partner violence results in more than 18.5 million mental health care visits each year.”
With that said, not all homes provide a safe haven. For far too many women violence and danger are their constant companions. Many incidents of domestic violence go unreported. What data that is available indicates as shared previously that domestic violence continues to pose a clear and present danger to the health and well-being of countless women and girls. Yet, domestic violence is a subject that we, as a society, are reluctant to talk about. As a result, victims often suffer and sometimes die in silence. It is important to know: what constitutes domestic violence, how you can help, and available resources.
What constitutes abuse? Domestic violence is a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors, including but not limited to physical, sexual, and psychological attacks, as well as economic coercion, that people use to gain power and control over their intimate partners. Research indicates that domestic violence is common and affects people of all cultures, religions, ages, sexual orientations, educational backgrounds and income levels. Domestic violence is not a private family matter as was once thought but rather a crime against society. Abuse takes many forms.
Abuse comes in several forms and, while some define abuse as a physical attack, it can also be emotional, financial, or sexual. Physically abusive behavior can escalate quickly and have lethal consequences. Emotional abuse is considered a psychological or mental attack on another, including name-calling, destructive criticism, harassment, isolation, intimidation, or humiliation. These emotionally destructive behaviors by the abusive partner can be detrimental to the victim’s mental well-being both in the short-term as well as long-term without counseling. Emotionally abusive relationships can destroy the victim’s self-worth, lead to anxiety and depression, and make the victim feel helpless and alone. No one should have to endure this kind of pain—and the first step to breaking free is recognizing that the relationship is abusive.
Are there other forms of domestic violence? Other forms of domestic violence include but are not limited to financial and sexual abuse. Financial abuse, also known as economic abuse, results from one partner’s attempts to gain and maintain control over their partner’s finances. Taking many forms, financial abuse includes disallowing a partner from obtaining a job, purposely hurting a partner’s credit, limiting access to funds, and demanding that a partner ask for money for every expense. Sexual abuse results from one partner forcing his or her will on the other, often causing physical and psychological harm in the process. When a partner is afraid to say no, he or she suffers from abuse. Once the victim acknowledges the reality of the abusive situation, then she or he can get the much-needed help.
Is this an exhaustive list of the forms of domestic violence? Although lengthy, the aforementioned categories of domestic violence do not comprise all forms abuse. Stalking is another form of emotional abuse. With the rise of technology, many abuse their partner by stalking them with the aid of cell phones, computers, and the Internet, or using technology to monitor a partner’s activity. Research indicates that this type of abuse is especially common among teenagers and young adults. The immigration status of the victim can also afford the abusive partner an opportunity to control the victim. When the abusive partner, often a spouse, holds control over the victim’s immigration papers, threatens to call immigration authorities, or refuses to let his or her partner to learn English, among other things this behavior constitutes abuse. More than ever before, society must guard against domestic abuse in all forms, paying special attention to non-traditional forms of abusive behavior which all too often go overlooked.
How can you help? There are several ways that you can help a person in an abusive relationship. First, you must be a patient and non-judgmental listener. Respect your friend or family member’s decisions. There are many reasons why victims stay in abusive relationships. Secondly, you can encourage him or her to talk to people who can provide help and guidance. Assist your friend in locating a local domestic violence agency that provides counseling and/or shelter. If the person elects to go to the police, court or a lawyer, you can offer to accompany them for moral support. It is important to be mindful that you cannot rescue the person being abused. Although it is difficult to see someone you care about being hurt only the abused person can decide when to take the requisite steps to secure a life free from the violence and turmoil which occurs in an abusive relationship.
The pervasive problem of domestic violence takes everyone to make it stop. If you suspect that someone you know is being abused, keep in mind that expressing your concern for their health and well-being will let the person know that you care and may even save her or his life.
Sources:NCADV website and PCADV website
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This week, the United States House of Representatives Committee on Rules is scheduled to consider an amended version of S. 47, the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act (VAWA) of 2013. S. 47 originated in the Senate and passed overwhelmingly with bipartisan support (78-12) on February 12, 2013.
The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence and the AAUW are strongly opposed to the United States House of Representatives version of the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 pending before the Rules Committee. “The House version of the bill rolls back current law and fails victims in a number of critical ways:
• Fails to include the protections for LGBT victims from the Senate bill;
• Provides non-tribal batterers with additional tools to manipulate the justice system, takes away existing protections for Native women by limiting existing tribal power to issue civil orders of protection against non-Native abusers, while weakening protections for Native women;
• Contains harsh administrative penalties and hurdles for small struggling domestic violence and sexual assault programs and an additional layer of bureaucracy through the office of the Attorney General;
• Drops the Campus Sexual Violence Elimination (SAVE) Act, which is included in the Senate bill, that improves the handling of sexual violence and intimate partner violence on college campuses;
• Drops important provisions in the Senate bill that work toward erasing the rape kit backlog;
• Weakens protections for victims in public housing; and
• Drops the inclusion of “stalking” among the list of crimes covered by the U visa (a critical law enforcement tool that encourages immigrant victims to assist with the investigation or prosecution of certain enumerated crimes)”
“The only VAWA bill that we can endorse is the original S.47, a bill that passed the Senate overwhelmingly with bipartisan support and aims to protect all victims as well as hold all perpetrators accountable– regardless of race, nationality, ethnicity, religion, immigrant status or sexual orientation.”
“NCADV stands in solidarity with more than 1,300 advocacy organizations, including the National Task Force to End Sexual and Domestic Violence, and urges the House to vote no on the VAWA measure pending before the Rules Committee.”
Act now and join advocacy organizations across the country in opposing the United States House of Representatives’ VAWA measure by contacting your House member. For additional information, see the NCADV website and the NTF Alert.
Sources: NCADV Action Alert. AAUW Action Alert
Photo Credit: Microsoft Clip Art
Not all homes provide a safe haven. For the victims of domestic violence, home is a place where hearts and lives are broken. Family violence spares no one. The partner who is battered and the children who watch, or who themselves may be abused, all suffer. Their physical and emotional pain is long-lasting.
Domestic violence continues to pose a clear and present danger to the health and well-being of women. For far too many women violence and danger are their constant companions. Yet, domestic violence is a subject that we, as a society, are reluctant to talk about. As a result, victims often suffer and die in silence. And despite the intense media attention recently focused on a few high profile courtroom cases, the public remains largely uninformed about the nature and warning signs of domestic violence.
Until recently, domestic violence was viewed as a “private family matter” as opposed to a crime against society with potentially lethal consequences. Increasingly our public institutions—law enforcement, the courts, policy makers, health care providers, and social service providers—are recognizing incidents of domestic violence as violent criminal acts with devastating consequences for individual victims, their children, and the community, and are seeking effective methods for dealing with this pressing public health issue. Community support and involvement are integral parts of domestic violence prevention and intervention.
The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) has provided funding for much needed supportive programs for victims of domestic violence. The National Task to End Sexual and Domestic Violence Against Women in its recent action alert reminds us that the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) is before the Senate. This week’s action alert requests that we call our Senators to urge them to: 1) pass VAWA; and 2) to vote against any weakening or non-germane amendments.
GOAL: Pass VAWA in the Senate this week!
ACTION ITEM: CALL YOUR SENATORS TODAY!!!
S. 47, a strong, bipartisan bill – with 61 sponsors – that would reauthorize the landmark Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), sponsored by Senators Patrick Leahy (D-VT) and Michael Crapo (R-ID) is headed to the Senate floor for debate TODAY and a vote on final passage could occur as early as THURSDAY! This bill is very similar to the bipartisan legislation introduced by Senators Leahy and Crapo last Congress and would improve VAWA programs and strengthen protections for all victims of violence.
With 61 sponsors, victory is in sight. In anticipation of the impending vote, we need you to take action TODAY by contacting your Senators and ask them to vote YES on S. 47. We also need to remind Senators If you do not see your Senator on the list of co-sponsors below, call the Capitol switchboard at 202) 224-3121 and ask the operator to connect you to your Senators. If you do not know who your Senators are, you can look them up here (http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm). When you’re connected to their offices, ask to speak to the staff person who handles VAWA.
If your Senator is already cosponsoring, tell or leave a message for the staff person:
1) I am a constituent from (city and state) and my name is _________.
2) I want to thank Senator____ for co-sponsoring S. 47, a strong, bipartisan bill that would reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, and voting YES on the bill. Please urge Senator _____________ to follow Senator Leahy’s lead and vote NO on any weakening or non-germane amendments.
If your Senator is NOT already cosponsoring, tell or leave a message for the staff person:
1) I am a constituent from (city and state) and my name is _________.
2) I urge Senator____ to co-sponsor S. 47, a strong, bipartisan bill that would reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, and to vote YES on the bill and vote NO on any weakening or non-germane amendments.
3) Thank you and I look forward to hearing that the Senator is a co-sponsor and/or voted for VAWA without harmful amendments.
Thus far, the bill has the following sponsors: Senators Ayotte, Kelly (R-NH), Baldwin, Tammy (D-WI), Baucus, Max (D-MT) , Begich, Mark (D-AK), Bennet, Michael (D-CO), Blumenthal, Richard (D-CT), Boxer, Barbara (D-CA), Brown, Sherrod (D-OH), Cantwell, Maria (D-WA), Cardin, Benjamin (D-MD), Carper, Thomas (D-DE) Casey, Robert (D-PA), Collins, Susan (R-ME), Coons, Chris (D-DE), Crapo, Mike (R-ID), Donnelly, Joe (D-IN) Durbin, Richard (D-IL), Feinstein, Dianne (D-CA), Franken, Al (D-MN), Gillibrand, Kirsten (D-NY), Hagan, Kay (D-NC), Harkin, Tom (D-IA), Heinrich, Martin (D-NM), Heitkamp, Heidi (D-ND), Heller, Dean (R-NV), Hirono, Mazie (D-HI), Johnson, Tim (D – SD), Kaine, Tim (D-VA) King, Angus (I-ME), Kirk, Mark (R-IL), Klobuchar, Amy (D-MN), Landrieu, Mary (D-LA), Lautenberg, Frank R. (D-NJ) Leahy, Patrick (D-VT), Levin, Carl (D-MI) McCaskill, Claire (D-MO), Manchin, Joe (D-WV) ,Menendez, Robert (D-NJ), Merkley, Jeff (D-OR), Mikulski, Barbara (D-MD), Moran, Jerry (R-KS), Murkowski, Lisa (R-AK), Murphy, Christopher (D-CT) Murray, Patty (D-WA), Nelson, Bill (D-FL) Pryor, Mark (D-AR), Reed, Jack (D-RI), Reid, Harry (D-NV), Rockefeller, John D (D-WV), Sanders, Bernard (I-VT), Schatz, Brian (D-HI) Schumer, Charles (D-NY), Shaheen, Jeanne (D-NH), Stabenow, Debbie (D-MI), Tester, Jon (D-MT), Udall, Mark (D-CO), Udall, Tom (D-NM), Warner, Mark (D-VA), Warren, Elizabeth (D-MA), Whitehouse, Sheldon (D-RI), Wyden, Ron (D-OR).
Please thank these Senators for their early support of the Violence Against Women Act.
Potential Sponsors of S. 47
Fischer, Deb – (R – NE) The only woman Senator, out of 20, who has yet to sponsor VAWA
Alexander, Lamar – (R – TN)
Coats, Daniel – (R – IN)
Corker, Bob (R-TN)
Hoeven, John – (R – ND)
McCain, John – (R – AZ)
Portman, Rob – (R – OH)
Vitter, David – (R – LA)
Cornyn, John – (R – TX)
Enzi, Michael B. – (R – WY)
Graham, Lindsey – (R – SC)
Grassley, Chuck – (R – IA)
Hatch, Orrin G. – (R – UT)
Rubio, Marco – (R – FL)
Toomey, Patrick J. – (R – PA)
–Voted for VAWA 2012
Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women – more than car accidents, muggings, and rape combined. And studies suggest that up to 10 million children witness some form of domestic abuse annually. Since its enactment in 1994, the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) has saved lives and saved money.
Urge your senators to cosponsor VAWA and move this bill forward. With an equal amount of conscience, mind, heart, and collective action, we can end violence against women. In 2013, each of us should commit ourselves to halting violence within our homes, our communities, and our nation—toward that goal, contact your federal elected officials about co-sponsoring the Violence Against Women Act.
Source(s): National Task Force to End Sexual and Domestic Violence Against Women Action Alert; National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV); American Association of University Women (AAUW). CDC.
Photo Credit: Microsoft Clip Art
This year, Valentine’s Day falls on Thursday, February 14th. Valentine’s Day marks a day for couples and sweethearts to celebrate their love and treasure their time together. As Valentine’s Day is fast approaching, I thought it important to discuss the characteristics of healthy relationships.
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), intimate partner violence results in an estimated 1,200 deaths and 2 million injuries among women and nearly 600,000 injuries among men annually. Twenty-three percent of women and eleven percent of men aged 18 years or more have a lifetime history of intimate partner violence victimization. Prevention is key in domestic violence. With that understanding, this post discusses the characteristics of healthy relationship.
Characteristics of Healthy Romantic Relationships:
- Partnership: There is shared responsibility.
- Economic Equality: Freedom exists related to issues of work, school, and money.
- Emotional Honesty: Both parties feel safe to share fears and insecurities.
- Sexual Respect: Accepts that “no” means “no”.
- Physical Safety: Respects partner’s space and discusses issues without violence.
- Supportive/Trusting: Listens and understands, values partner’s opinion, and sensitive to other’s needs.
Characteristics of Abusive Relationships:
- Domination: Abuser decides. Servant-Master relationship.
- Economic Control: Withholds money.
- Emotional Manipulation: Uses jealousy, passion, and stress to justify actions.
- Sexual Abuse: Treats partners as sex object.
- Physical Abuse: Hit, choke, kick, punch, pull hair, twist arms, trip, bite.
- Controlling: Isolates partner from friends.
- Intimidating: Charming in public but menacing in private.
The abusive behaviors listed above are not comprehensive. The information should simply serve as a brief overview and to encourage the reader to seek more information. For further information on the topic of domestic violence, there are many websites that can provide comprehensive information on this topic including but not limited to: http://www.thehotline.org; and http://www.ncadv.org.
Source(s): Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Sanctuary for Families. National Domestic Violence Hotline. Photo credit: Microsoft Clip Art
February is National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month. Teen Dating Violence (DV) Prevention and Awareness Month is a national effort to raise awareness about abuse in teen and 20-something relationships and promote programs that prevent it during the month of February.
Like domestic violence, teen dating violence is a pattern of controlling, and abusive behaviors of one person over another within a romantic relationship. It can include verbal, emotional, physical, sexual, and financial abuse. It can occur in both heterosexual and homosexual relationships. It knows no boundaries and crosses race, socio-economic status, culture, and religion. Violence can happen to anyone.
Annually, 1 out of 11 adolescents reports being a victim of physical dating abuse (CDC 2006). Many of these cases of teen dating violence could have been prevented by helping adolescents to develop skills for healthy relationships with others (Foshee et al. 2005). Like adults, teenagers can choose better relationships when they learn to identify the early warning signs of an abusive relationship, understand that they have choices, and believe they are valuable people who deserve to be treated with dignity and respect.
Access to information is integral to breaking the cycle of violence. Toward that goal, I would like to direct your attention to very help informational resources related to domestic violence intervention, prevention, and community outreach. For further information on teen dating violence, here are several websites you can visit: http://www.thesafespace.org; and http://www.breakthecycle.org.
What barriers does an abused person face when attempting to end a violent relationship? As a long-time advocate for victims of domestic violence, Nichelle Mitchem recognizes that the complexity of the legal system and the absence of legal assistance cause some victims to stay in an abusive relationship. By understanding of the importance of the access to legal information, assistance, and often representation for battered women, Mitchem has sought to enhance the accessibility to legal services for victims of domestic violence for much of her career.
Whether serving as an administrator of legal service programs for battered women or as the executive director of a domestic violence agency, Nichelle has been asked to present on: the dynamics of domestic violence, available supportive services, and the legal aspects of domestic violence. “Like shelter and counseling, access to legal information and assistance serve to empower abused persons,” Mitchem says. When discussing domestic violence with various audiences, participants often pose the question, “Why doesn’t the victim just leave?” In response, Mitchem says, “Most victims want to leave and many try. Even under the best of circumstances, leaving a relationship is difficult. Violent relationships are complex; and victims in these relationships are faced with many barriers to leaving. These barriers include the lack of knowledge of: civil and criminal protections afforded to them under the law as well as available legal resources. Additionally, the abusive partner occasionally uses intimidation and/or violence to stop the victim from severing the relationship. As a result, victims often fear retaliation for ending the relationship.”
Mitchem asserts that, “Victims often stay, because they fear that the abuser will find her and kill/harm her, the children, other relatives, or friends. They stay with the hopes that the violence will end, because they are financially dependent on the abuser, lack alternative housing, or are trying to keep the family together. They stay hoping change is possible. It takes strength and determination to survive violence. However, as time goes on, surviving an abusive relationship becomes more difficult.” This fact is particularly true for economically disadvantaged battered women and abused women with disabilities. Mitchem has sought to enhance access to legal services for this particularly vulnerable population by understanding of the importance of legal information, assistance, and representation for many battered women, particularly those who are indigent, homeless, and/or disabled. During her tenure as executive director, domestic violence agencies have launched and/or expanded on legal service programs that assist clients in negotiating legal and other challenges that might arise as they seek to eliminate domestic violence from their lives. These very necessary programs assist survivors of domestic violence to build long-term safety and security for themselves and their children.”
For information about available legal services and other programs for victims of domestic violence in your community, please visit the National Domestic Violence Hotline website at http://www.thehotline.org.
Photo Credit: Microsoft Clip Art
DATE: April 04, 2013 – April 05, 2013
LOCATION: Baltimore Hilton, 401 West Pratt Street, Baltimore, MD 21201
SPONSORING AGENCY: End Violence Against Women International (EVAWI)
CONTACT EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
Description: Join fellow law enforcement personnel, prosecutors, victim advocates, judges, parole and probation officers, rape crisis workers, medical personnel, faith community members, educators and others in this three day conference highlighting promising practices and emerging issues in sexual assault, domestic violence and stalking.
REGISTRATION: Pay by February 15th, 2013 to receive $50 off the price of the conference. The 2013 conference will also include a Pre-Conference Track addressing the Forensic Clinical Response to Victims of Violence Against Women. This Pre-Conference Track will take place on April 2, the day before the conference.
For more information see: http://www.evawintl.org/PreConferenceDetail.aspx?confid=12
Sources: Sponsoring Agency– End Violence Against Women International (EVAWI)
Photo Credit: Microsoft Clip Art
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the first findings from The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) and it is available online. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey that assesses experiences of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence among adult women and men in the United States. It measures lifetime victimization for these types of violence as well as victimization in the 12 months prior to the survey. The survey goes beyond counting acts of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence by assessing the range of violence experienced by victims and the impact of that victimization. The report also includes the first ever simultaneous national and state-level prevalence estimates of these forms of violence for all states.
Source: Prevent Connect. CDC.
Photo Credit: Microsoft Clip Art
Domestic violence continues to pose a clear and present danger to the health and well-being of countless victims. An important factor to consider when pondering the question why doesn’t the victim leave is her/his economic ability to live independently. Studies indicate that one of the best predictors of whether a victim will be able to stay away from her abuser is her degree of economic independence. However, domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault and stalking often negatively impacts victims’ ability to maintain employment.
Abusers often seek to exert financial control their partners by actively interfering with their ability to work, including preventing their partners from going to work, harassing their partners at work, limiting the access of their partners to cash or transportation, and sabotaging the child care arrangements of their partners.  Studies indicate that between 35 and 56 percent of employed battered women surveyed were harassed at work by their abusive partners. 
Victims of domestic violence also often miss work due to injuries, court dates, and safety concerns requiring legal protections. Victims of intimate partner violence lose 8,000,000 days of paid work each year–the equivalent of over 32,000 full-time jobs and 5,600,000 days of household productivity. According to a 1998 report of the General Accounting Office, between 1/4 and 1/2 of domestic violence victims surveyed in 3 studies reported that they lost a job due, at least in part, to domestic violence. Women who have experienced domestic violence or dating violence are more likely than other women to be unemployed, to suffer from health problems that can affect employability and job performance, to report lower personal income, and to rely on welfare.
Domestic violence also affects perpetrators’ ability to work. A recent study found that 48% of abusers reported having difficulty concentrating at work and 42% reported being late to work. Seventy-eight ( 78) percent reported using their own company’s resources in connection with the abusive relationship. More than 35 percent of stalking victims report losing time from work due to the stalking  and 7 percent never return to work.  The Bureau of National Affairs has estimated that domestic violence costs United States employers between $3,000,000,000 and $5,000,000,000 annually in lost time and productivity, while other reports have estimated the cost at between $5,800,000,000 and $13,000,000,000 annually. 
United States medical costs for domestic violence have been estimated to be 1,000,000,000 per year. Ninety-four percent of corporate security and safety directors at companies nationwide rank domestic violence as a high security concern. Already, 25 States and the District of Columbia have laws that explicitly provide unemployment insurance to domestic violence victims in certain circumstances; however, these laws vary in the extent to which they effectively address the special circumstances of victims of domestic violence and very few of the laws explicitly cover victims of sexual assault or stalking.
Five States provide victims of domestic or sexual violence with leave from work to go to court, to the doctor, or to take other steps to address the violence in their lives, and several other States provide time off to victims of crimes, which can include victims of domestic and sexual violence, to attend court proceedings. However, many States have no employment-protected leave provisions that allow victims of domestic or sexual violence to take the time off they need to address the violence.  Domestic violence victims and third parties who help them have been subjected to discriminatory practices by health, life, disability, and property and casualty insurers and employers who self-insure employee benefits who have denied or canceled coverage, rejected claims, and raised rates based on domestic violence.
Although some State legislatures have tried to address these problems, the scope of protection afforded by the laws adopted varies from State to State, with many failing to address the problem comprehensively. Moreover, Federal law prevents States from protecting the almost 40 percent of employees whose employers self-insure employee benefits.
Sources: Listed below in the footnote section. Photo credit: Microsoft Clip Art
1. EVAN STARK & ANNE FLITCRAFT, WOMEN AT RISK: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WOMEN’S HEALTH xvii, 10, 202 (1996).
2. JODY RAPHAEL & RICHARD M. TOLMAN, TRAPPED IN POVERTY, TRAPPED BY ABUSE: NEW EVIDENCE DOCUMENTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WELFARE (1997).
3. U.S. GEN. ACCT. OFFICE, DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVALENCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT AMONG WELFARE RECIPIENTS 19 (Nov. 1998).
4. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003.
5. U.S. GEN. ACCT. OFFICE, DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVALENCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT AMONG WELFARE RECIPIENTS 19 (NOV. 1998).
6. DETIS T. DUHART, U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, VIOLENCE IN THE WORKFORCE, 1993-1999 2 (DECEMBER 2001).
7. GREG WARCHOL, U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, WORKPLACE VIOLENCE, 1992-96 2 (July 1998).
8. DETIS T. DUHART, U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, VIOLENCE IN THE WORKFORCE, 1993-1999 2 (DECEMBER 2001).
9. GREG WARCHOL, U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE, WORKPLACE VIOLENCE, 1992-96 4 (July 1998).
10. E. Ellis, B. Atkeson and K. Calhoun, An Assessment of the Long Term Reaction to Rape, 50 J. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY No. 3, 264 (1981).
11. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003.
12. PATRICIA T JADEN & NANCY THOENNES, NAT’L INST. OF JUST. & CTRS. FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION, STALKING IN AMERICA: FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN SURVEY 11 (April 1998). PATRICIA TJADEN & NANCY THOENNES, NAT’L INST. OF JUST. & CTRS. FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION, STALKING IN AMERICA: FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN SURVEY 11 (April 1998).
13. Joan Zorza, Women Battering: High Costs and the State of the Law, CLEARINGHOUSE REV., Vol. 28, No. 4, 383, 385 (1994); National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003.; “Intimate Violence Costs Billions,” ABC News, 4/29/2003.
14. Joan Zorza, Women Battering: High Costs and the State of the Law, LEARINGHOUSE REV., Vol. 28, No. 4, 383, 385 (1994).
15. JOSEPH A. KINNEY, NAT’L SAFE WORKPLACE INST., DOMESTIC VIOLENCE MOVES INTO WORKPLACE (1994).
16. NOW LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATION FUND, VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN FACT SHEETS ON STATE LAWS: UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE, ( at http://www.nowldef.org/html/issues/vio/laws-ui.shtml (April 1, 2003 (states include California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming); State Net 2003 Bill Tracking HI S.B. 931 (Hawaii Governor signed law on 5/19/2003); State Net 2003 Bill Tracking MT S.B. 180 (Montana Governor signed provision on 4/14/2003 to make law permanent); StateNet 2003 Bill Tracking IL H.B. 3486 (passed both Houses 6/1/03) ) (Please note: Legal Momentum is the new name of NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. The new link to the fact sheet is http://www.legalmomentum.org/issues/vio/ui.pdf)
17. NOW LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATION FUND, VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN FACT SHEETS ON STATE LAWS: UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE, ( at http://www.nowldef.org/html/issues/vio/laws-ui.shtml (April 1, 2003 (states include California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming).